1. Example of hyperlink
  2. What is the hyperlink anchor text?
  3. Types of hyperlinks
  4. How does link juice work?
  5. Defining the structure of a domain through links
  6. How is an hyperlink in HTML?
Internal HyperLink example
Example of a “link” or hyperlink

In this way, these two pages are connected and both users and bots have the option of accessing HOW GOOGLE WORKS every time they visit the WHAT IS AN HYPERLINK page.

The hyperlinks within the text are usually highlighted, like in the previous case, in a different colour, in bold, or underlined. However, this is not essential and will depend on the configuration of each website.

In this case, the hyperlink works as a recommendation from the author to the reader, in the example above we are recommending to the reader that if they want to know more about “search engines like Google” (anchor text), we recommend them to access a certain page. Google, among others, also values the links as a recommendation, and through these recommendations, builds an authority index of the different pages. Later we will see that recommendations can be made within the domain itself (internal hyperlinks), or externally to other domains (external hyperlinks).

In the example shown above, the link will take us to the page “https://doctor-seo.net/en/seo-course/seo-fundations/how-google-works/” and the text “search engines like Google” is called “anchor text” or simply “anchor”.

Anchor text are very important for both real users and crawlers, as it provides a description of the subject of the page to which the link is directed.

It makes sense that if an anchor text says “best hotels in Spain”, it will direct us to a page about hotels in Spain, and one that says “best restaurants in France” will direct us to a page about French restaurants.

For more information about how to optimise your anchor texts, we recommend you visit the section: Anchor text optimisation.

Returning to the concept that a link is a recommendation. There are different types of links that we will initially distribute in 2 categories:

  • Jump links: Also called “Jump link”. It takes you to another section of the same document, without changing page.
  • Internal links: Links that connect to other pages within the same domain.
  • External links: These links recommend accessing a page on another domain outside the current one.
  • Image links: This is a link associated with an image, so that clicking on it loads a page associated with it.
  • Download links: When the link is clicked, a download of a file is initiated.
  • Links to an email: Clicking on these links opens an e-mail management programme and adds the recipient’s address automatically. These usually include in the destination address the expression “mailto:” and then the e-mail address.

Internal links make it easier for users to navigate through a domain, and help search engine crawlers understanding the structure of the domain. For example, on a cooking website, if we have to read the entire content of the website to find the recipe we want, it would take us a long time.

In this example, the page https://www.thekitchn.com/how-to-cook-golden-juicy-chicken-breast-on-the-stove-248171 provides access to different recipes, and the anchor text details the concept of each of the recipes. Making each of the contents of the website more accessible and defining a structure for search engines.

In addition, the internal links will help the website to distribute the “Link juice” that we will talk about next.

Example of internal and external hyperlinks
Example of internal and external links on a kitchen website
Example of external and internal links on a website
Internal links provide access to users, help define the structure of the domain, and also distribute the “Linkjuice”.

External links, however, serve to recommend content outside the domain itself. In some cases it may be related to the subject matter of the domain itself, and in others, as in this case, to the Hotel website, it may not be related at all, probably as a result of a paid hyperlink or advert.

Generally, such unconnected cases usually have the sole purpose of transferring “link juice” to another domain, behaviour that is usually penalised by Google unless the NOFOLLOW relationship is added.

In due course we will go into more detail on each of the following relationships. But it is important to know that hyperlinks can have different attributes:

  • TARGET= Open in a new tab or replace the current page.
  • REL= Allows you to define the link as DOFOLLOW, NOFOLLOW, UGC, or SPONSORED and recommend to search engines whether to go through the link or not to follow the link, and therefore not to transfer authority and link juice.

But what is this “link juice” we’ve been talking about for a while?

Link juice is an SEO technique used to transfer authority between different websites.

Let’s imagine our website as a big bucket of water. By implementing a link, water will flow from the page to the next page.

The same goes for the flow of crawlers or bots. Let’s imagine that Google sends 20 crawler bots to study our website. While a percentage of them are dedicated to analyse the text and code of the page, others will access through the link and study the next page.

Let’s assume that, in this example, half (10) will be dedicated to the first and the other half will be sent to the next page to replicate the actions performed on the first page.

What is the link juice of an hyperlink
Link juice is transmitted from one web page to another via links.
Distribución del link juice entre dos enlaces web
Link juice is distributed almost equally between the individual links.

It is logical to think that if you add two links to different web pages, the link juice will be distributed almost evenly across them.

In the example above, half of the 20 crawlers (or “crawlers”) would focus on analysing the content of the page, and the other half would focus on following the links. On a page with 2 links, only 5 crawlers will access each linked page.

And we say that they are “apparently” equally distributed because, in case of having 3 links, the division would already generate inequality, sending 4 crawlers to one page and 3 to each of the other two.

The general belief is that, in this type of situation, the link at the top of the content (at the top of the page) is usually the one that benefits the most.

Now imagine that the second bucket of water also contains links to another web page.

In this case some of the crawlers will analyse the page, and others will continue to crawl new links.

We will call these new links “TIER 2” or second level links.

These links will benefit in a smaller proportion from the linkjuice initially generated in the first bucket.

Example of Link Juice TIER 2 with bots percentages
The crawlers are divided through the links TIER 1, TIER 2 and so on…

These links will benefit in a smaller proportion from the linkjuice initially generated in the first bucket.
In the last drawing we can see again how of the 20 initial trackers, 10 remain on page A, and 10 others are distributed between pages B and C.
Likewise, the links on page B generate that of the 5 crawlers that arrive, some will remain on the page (3 in this case), while the other 2 are divided between the links to pages C and D. If we look at this moment, page C has twice as many crawlers as page B, since it gets 5 from the TIER 1 link that comes from A, and another one that comes from B, while page B by losing crawlers with its links, consumes part of the “linkjuice” that it acquires from A.

If we think about the size of a large web domain, and the large number of links it can have, it is logical to think that search engines will give greater relevance to the pages whose crawlers go through more times. In the example above, the main page A would have more relevance than C, and would establish a hierarchy of pages A>C>B>D.

This is where the concept of “backlinks” comes into play. A backlink is an external link that a website makes to yours.

Some sort of recommendation, from another domain to your website, and therefore will send “link juice” to that page.

This flow will extend through the internal links on the page through the entire domain, increasing the authority of the same for the search engines.

Later on we will discover what types of backlinks exist and how they can affect positively or negatively depending on the website they come from.

Diagram of how a backlink increases link juice
A backlink strengthens the linkjuice of a page and the entire domain through internal links on that page.

When we mentioned how Google works, we said that it tries to turn all the content on the internet into a large library, which it gradually categorises by subject matter.

Therefore, in an attempt to make its work easier, it is important to organise the content of your own domain in the same way, the more structured it is by subject matter, the easier it is for crawlers to understand the content and index it in their archive. This is where the concept of “Parent pages” is born, where each page (with the exception of the home page), is going to be a “child” of another page.

To give structure to a website we have several tools:

  • Subfolders: such as https://doctor-seo.net/curso-seo/fundamentos/la-evolucion-del-seo/ where crawlers understand that /the-evolution-of-seo/ is part of a larger group called /foundations/ and in turn all of it is encompassed in /course-seo/.
  • Breadcrumbs: these allow the user and crawlers to understand exactly where in the domain the current page is located. They also show a clear, step-by-step exit to the higher categories of the page.
  • Internal links: without being an insurmountable fixed rule, internal links should define the structure of the domain, predominantly internal links between its relatives, i.e. a page can link to its parent page, as well as to other subpages of its parent, let’s say “sister pages”, thus creating groups of pages with a similar theme that interconnect with each other.
Example of the structure of a website and its internal links
The pages are connected to each other by families and to their parent.

The pages are connected to each other by families and to their parent.

On a technical level, the link is called a “Hyperlink” and is therefore written as follows in HTML code:

<a href="https://doctor-seo.net/">Homepage</a>
What an HTML hyperlink looks like
Example of a hyperlink structure in HTML

On HTML a hyperlink starts with the ANCHOR command <a>. Let’s review the steps to build a link:

  1. <a – Open command anchor
  2. href – ad hyperlink reference
  3. =”target URL” – define in between reverse comas the target page
  4. > – close the anchor command previously opened <a
  5. anchor text – define anchor text, describing the target URL
  6. </a> – clarify that the anchor command has concluded

So far this is the most important thing about links, or hyperlinks.

Ready to move on to the next topic?